Self control is the ability to say "no" when you really want to say "yes"! Self control is delaying gratification and controlling our impulses.
In 1972 one of the classic psychology experiments of all time was done. Children's self control was being tested. The experimenter, Walter Mischel, brought children into his laboratory one at a time. They sat at a table and were shown a marshmallow on a plate. They were told they could eat it now, or if they waited a few minutes until he returned they could have two!
Here's some superb (and very funny) footage of how it looked.
Researchers have followed people for over 30 years of life, measuring self-control from the age of three, and observing life outcomes across the decades.
Compared with people who have high self-control, people with low self-control die younger, have more psychiatric issues and disorders, are less healthy, are more likely to be obese, smoke, and drink or use drugs, are more likely to have unsafe (and impulsive) sex, drive drunk, and commit crimes!
What a list!
The science of self-control powerfully points to success in life stemming largely from our self control. Those who have high self-control generally enjoy greater health, wealth, relationships, and overall wellbeing.
Here are a couple of interesting facts about kids and self-control:
- Girls generally show greater self-control than boys. Boys can and do catch up, but not until they are adults.
- Self-control is easier when trying "not" to do things than when trying "to" do things. As an example, it is easier to not eat the ice-cream in the freezer than it is to force yourself to tidy the house, write that letter, or prepare dinner. (Bear this in mind when you ask your children "to do" things - it's harder to do than to "not" do).
- Self control can change. We can develop it, and so can our children.
- Our self-control can be depleted over time. It's a bit of a tangent, but this video explains how it works (and it's really cool too).
There are two very important issues to be aware of. First, if we constantly try to influence and subtely (or explicitly) control our children they will not develop self-control. That's because we will be in control. Decades of research shows that being too controlling of our kids is bad for their development. Second, demanding that a child control himself (or herself), while not only controlling, can sometimes be age-inappropriate. We must ensure we are encouraging our children to do things that are age-appropriate.
To teach self-control (and impulse control/delayed gratification) to your children,
- Be a model. If you are explosive or 'lose control', your children will learn the same behaviour no matter how much you 'demand' something better of them.
- Set limits. Children will be far more likely to regulate their behaviour when they understand limits, particularly if they are involved in the process (where appropriate).
- Give responsibilities. By encouraging children to contribute (again in an age-appropriate way. We can't ask four year-olds to do a perfect job mowing the lawn! But they can "help" with the dishes, tidying up, and so on) they can develop a sense of control.
- Let your children make decisions for themselves. Talk about the ramifications of their decisions and help them think through the future outcomes related to what they choose.
- Talk about self control. Share the information you've gained from this blog with your children. Talk about the psychology of control. Watch the movie above with them. Laugh about it, but also share the ramifications (positive and negative) about self-control. It may be particularly useful to encourage your children to tell you about times when they did or did not control themselves. Have them identify the outcomes of their choices to use self-control.
- Do your own experiment. Once you've watched the movie with the marshmallows and talked about it, have some fun with it. Show your children that they CAN develop self-control, and that the outcomes are worth it.
Self-control predicts health, wealth, and civil decisions for good or for bad depending on how we choose to (or choose not to) control ourselves. Teaching children self-control requires skilled parenting, an ability to guide rather than direct, and lots of encouragement. But if you can control yourself as you guide your children, you will be putting them on a path that leads to success in life!
Caspi, A., et al. (1996). Behavioural observations at age 3 predict adult psychiatric disorders. Longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 1033-1039.
Kochanska, G., et al. (2001). The development of self-regulation in the first four years of life. Child Development, 72, 1091-1111.
Moffitt, T., et al. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academies of Science, 108, 2693-2698.